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Đảo ngữ là gì, vấn đề đảo ngữ trong viết tiếng Anh

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muathuvang

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INVERSION (ĐẢO NGỮ)
Trong
tiếng Anh , khi trong câu có những từ hoặc cụm từ sau , người ta thường
đặt chúng ở đầu câu để nhấn mạnh ý nghĩa của câu. Đồng thời động từ
trong câu được đặt như dạng câu hỏi. Điều này được gọi là đảo ngữ. Nguyên tắc chung: 1)- Với động từ BE: …… BE S ……… 2)- Với dộng từ thường: a)- Ở các thì đơn (HT đơn, QK đơn): ……. DO/DOES/DID S V ………… b)- Ở các thì hoàn thành (HTHT , QKHT): ……. HAVE/HAS/HAD S PP/V3 ………… 3)- Với các động từ tình thái (MV): ………. MV S V ................. I-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NO VÀ NOT: - I wil lend you no money from now on. ĐN:- No money will I lend you from now on. - I wont lend you any money from now on. ĐN:- Not any money will I lend you from now on. II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC TRẠNG TỪ PHỦ ĐỊNH: Never(không bao giờ), rarely = seldom = little (ít khi, hiếm khi, hầu như không), hardly (ever) (hầu như không bao giờ). - I will never speak to him again. ĐN:- Never will I speak to him again. - He has rarely got mark 10 in maths. ĐN:- Rarely has he got mark 10 in maths. - I seldom listen to rock music. ĐN:- Seldom do I listen to rock music. - She little understands me. ĐN:- Little does she understand me. - They hardly (ever) speak in public. ĐN:- Hardly (ever) do they speak in public. - She is never late for school. ĐN:- Never is she late for school. II-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: No sooner …… than; Hardly/Barely/Scarcely…… when/before…….. (Vừa mới ….. thì…….) 1)- No sooner had S PP/V3 than clause (QKĐ) 2)- Hardly/Barely/Scarcely had S PP/V3 when/before clause (QKĐ) -I had no sooner arrived home than the phone rang. ĐN:- No sooner had I arrived home than the phone rang. -I had hardly arrived home when/before the phone rang. ĐN:- Hardly had I arrived home when/before the phone rang. III-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI ONLY: - Only after N/V-ing: chỉ sau khi. - Only later: Chỉ sau này - Only once: chỉ một lần - Only then : chỉ đến lúc đó - Only when clause : chi đến khi - Only if clause : chỉ nếu - Only by N/V-ing : chỉ bằng cách - Only with N/V-ing: chỉ với. - Only in this/that way : chỉ bằng cách này/đó - I realized that I had forgotten to put on a stamp only after posting the letter. ĐN:- Only after posting the letter did I realize that I had forgotten to put on a stamp. - She will love him only when she understands him. ĐN:- Only when she understands him will she love him. - We can pass the exam only by working harder. ĐN:- Only by working harder can we pass the exam. - We will be successful only in this way. ĐN:- Only in this way will we be successful. - You are allowed to enter this room only if I have given permission. ĐN:- Only if I have given permission are you allowed to enter this room. IV- ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI CÁC CỤM GIỚI TỪ CÓ NO: - At no time : chưa từng bao giờ - In no way : không còn cách nào - On no condition : tuyệt đối không - On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì - Under/In no circumstances:trong bất cứ hoàn cảnh nào cũng không. - For no reasons = On no account : không vì bất cứ lí do gì. - No longer: không còn nữa Ex: - He never knew she came from a rich family. ĐN1:- At no time did he know she came from a rich family. ĐN2:- Never did he know she came from a rich family. - Keith certainly cant be held responsible for the accident. ĐN:- In no way can Keith be held responsible for the accident. - Passengers arent permitted to open the doors under/in any circumstances. ĐN:- Under/In no circumstances are passengers permitted to open the doors. - He no longer works as an accountant. He has just found another job. ĐN:- No longer does he works as an accountant. He ………………………….. V-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI SO ………….. THAT VÀ SUCH ………. THAT : 1)- SO ……….. THAT : - He worked so hard that he forgot his lunch. ĐN:- So hard did he worked that he forgot his lunch. - The play is so interesting that the theatre is likely to be full every night. ĐN1:- So interesting is the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night. ĐN2:- Such is the interest of the play that the theatre is likely to be full every night. - He bought so many books that he couldn't read them all. ĐN: So many books did he buy that he couldn't read them all. - Alice has so much homework that she can't finish it all. ĐN: So much homework does Alice have that she can't finish it all. Note: Dùng SO MANY/FEW/MUCH/LITTLE N không dùng SUCH. 2)- SUCH ……………. THAT : - It was such a boring speech that I got sleepy. ĐN:- Such was a boring speech that I got sleepy. Note: trong trường hợp BE SO MUCH/GREAT đổi thành SUCH BE NOUN - The force of the storm was so great that trees were uprooted. ĐN:- Such was the force of the storm that trees were uprooted. VI-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI : NOT ONLY …………. BUT ALSO (không những mà còn) NOT ONLY mệnh đề đảo BUT ……… ALSO mệnh đề thường - He is not only good at English but he can also draw very well. ĐN:- Not only is he good at English but he can also draw very well. VII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI: NOT UNTILL/TILL (THEN/LATER) NOT UNTILL/TILL mệnh đề thường mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến khi) - I didnt know where I was untill I asked a passer-by. ĐN:- Not untill I asked a passer-by did I know where I was. NOT UNTILL/TILL THEN/LATER mệnh đề đảo. (mãi đến lúc đó/sau này) - I didnt recognize him untill later. ĐN:- Not untill later did I recognize him. VIII-ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER/NOR VÀ SO: - They dont like chicken, and neither/nor do I. - She can play the guitar, and so can I. * ĐẢO NGỮ VỚI NEITHER………………..NOR : - There is neither excitement nor entertainment in this small town. ĐN: Neither is there excitement nor entertainment in this small town. IX-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG SO SÁNH VỚI AS VÀ THAN: - The cake was excellent, as the coffee was. ĐN:- The cake was excellent, as was the coffee. - I thought, as my friend did, that the exam would be difficult. ĐN:-I thought, as did my friend, that the exam would be difficult. - He has more money than you do. ĐN:- He has more money than do you. X-ĐẢO NGỮ TRONG CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN: 1-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 1: IF S V ……. ---------> SHOULD S V ………. - If you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once. ĐN:- Should you hear the fire alarm, leave the building at once. - If anybody phones me, please tell them Im busy. ĐN:- Should anybody phone me, please tell them Im busy. 2-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 2: a-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ TO BE: IF S WERE ………………….. ----------------> WERE S ……………….. - If I were you, I wouldnt do that. ĐN:-Were I you, I wouldnt do that. b-CÓ ĐỘNG TỪ THƯỜNG: IF S P/V2 ………………… ---------------> WERE S TO V …………… - If he worked more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes. ĐN:-Were he to work more slowly, he wouldnt make many mistakes. 3-CÂU ĐIỀU KIỆN LOẠI 3: IF S HAD PP/V3 ……………………… -------------------> HAD S PP/V3 …………. -If they had realized the danger, they would have done it differently. ĐN:-Had they realized the danger, they would have done it differently. Note: Đối với cả ba loại câu điều kiện, nếu mệnh đề IF là phủ định thì ta đặt NOT sau chủ từ. - If you dont believe what I said, ask your mother. ĐN:- Should you not believe what I said, ask your mother. - If she were not shy, she would have a good time at the party. ĐN:- Were she not shy, she would have a good time at the party. - If I hadnt seen it, I wouldnt have believed it. ĐN:- Had I not seen it, I wouldnt have believed it. XI-ĐẢO NGỮ SAU CÁC TRẠNG NGỮ CHỈ PHƯƠNG HƯỚNG HOẶC VỊ TRÍ: Khi câu có một từ hoặc một cụm trạng ngữ chỉ phương hướng hoặc vị trí thì nội động từ được đảo lên trước chủ ngữ. - David began to open the parcels. A dictionary was inside the first. ĐN:- David began to open the parcels. Inside the first was a dictionary. - A portrait of Lenin was above the fiòlace. ĐN:- Above the fiòlace was a portrait of Lenin. - His father sat in an armchair. ĐN:- In an armchair sat his father. Note: -Động
từ TO BE thường được sử dụng trong dạng đảo ngữ này, ngoài ra ta còn
dùng các nội động từ chỉ sự chuyển động như: CLIMB, COME, FLY, GO, HANG,
LIE, RUN, SIT, STAND, …….. -Thường chỉ dùng dạng đảo ngữ này khi động từ ở thì quá khứ đơn. -Trường hợp đảo ngữ này, không sử dụng trợ động từ mà sử dụng trực tiếp động từ đặt trước chủ từ. -Không đảo ngữ khi chủ từ là đại từ. (sai): In an armchair sat she. Xem chi tiết

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